リサーチユニット総覧(Research Unit Magazine)

パルテノン神殿 〜その装飾の意味は??
パルテノン彫刻研究リサーチユニットThe Parthenon. What is the meaning of its decoration?

代表者 : 長田 年弘    中核研究者 : 仏山 輝美  
他のメンバー : 大原 央聡  
キーワード: パルテノン、彫刻、古代ギリシア、古典考古学、美術史


14nagata01 パルテノン神殿の装飾は、紀元前5世紀前半に戦われたペルシアに対する民族戦争について表現するために作られたものだと考えられています。古代ギリシアの人々は何を美術に求めていたのでしょうか。その装飾の意味を考え、パルテノン神殿の装飾に新しい問題提起を行うため、本リサーチユニットでは古典期アテナイ美術について解明し、ロンドンの大英博物館と、アテネの新アクロポリス美術館の彫刻群を撮影し、調査を行います。

図1:ロンドン、大英博物館、パルテノン彫刻展示室における調査 2008 年(長田撮影)

図1:ロンドン、大英博物館、パルテノン彫刻展示室における調査 2008 年(長田撮影)





図2:パルテノン・フリーズ浮彫西面アテネ、新アクロポリス美術館 2011年(長田撮影)


社会的メディア?? それとも!?

図3:パルテノン神殿 東正面より 2007 年(長田撮影)

図3:パルテノン神殿 東正面より 2007 年(長田撮影)





● 私たちの常識は、他の文化から見れば、非常識なのかもしれません。私たちの見方や世界観が、もしかしたら簡単にひっくり返るかもしれないこと、一度真剣に、心の中をのぞきこんで考える必要があることを、歴史学は教えてくれるように思います。


The Parthenon. What is the meaning of its decoration?

Unit representative : Osada, Toshihiro    Core researcher : Hotokeyama, Terumi  
Unit members : Ohara, Hisaaki  

Unit name: Parthenon Project Japan

Key words: Parthenon, sculptures, ancient Greece, classical archaeology, art history


  14nagata01     It is believed that the decoration of the Parthenon represented metaphorically the victory of the wars against the Persians in the early 5th century B.C. What roles did Hellenes expect art to play? The research unit discusses the meaning of the decoration of the Parthenon and raises questions about it. The unit shoots footage and conducts surveys of the sculptures stored in the British Museum in London and the New Acropolis Museum in Athens.

図1:ロンドン、大英博物館、パルテノン彫刻展示室における調査 2008 年(長田撮影)

Figure 1: Survey of the Parthenon sculpture The Duveen Gallery of the British Museum, London, in 2008 (photo taken by Osada)


Establishment of the identity

       The Parthenon itself symbolizes the victory of the Greek world over the Persians. In Athenai (Athens), an advocator of freedom and democracy, such a method was used to convey political messages to the Greek world: In the city at that time, myths featuring images of “foreigners”, such as Gigantes, Amazons, Trojans, and Centaurs, were often used. Works of art were considered to serve as social media to establish their own ethnic identity and stylize the characteristics of other ethnic groups.


Figure 2: Part of the western side of the Parthenon frieze / The New Acropolis Museum in Athens in 2011 (photo taken by Osada)

Was it social media or not?

図3:パルテノン神殿 東正面より 2007 年(長田撮影)

Figure 3: The Parthenon-temple, the eastern front in 2007 (photo taken by Osada)

       However, it may be anachronistic for modern people to view the Parthenon as social media without taking into consideration about the historical background. Although scholars often argue that the Parthenon functioned as a kind of social media, others believe that it was only the product of belief. The Parthenon might have primarily been the product of belief, and partially served as social media, or vice versa. Only people at that time know the answer.

      Scholars tend to believe that the sculptures of the Parthenon represented the superiority of Greece over the Orient. However, when, for example, an internal dispute occurred in Greece, its officials sometimes fled to Persia. Although Greece was the enemy of Persia and conflicts between the two countries sometimes developed into wars, the upper classes of both countries contacted each other frequently. Examples of Greek culture influenced by the Orient question the common assumption of the hostility between the two countries. We raise questions about the traditional view of history, and review the process of the construction of the Parthenon from the perspectives of the art history and historical science.



Social contributions and achievements

– Our common sense may not be common sense in different cultural areas. History teaches us that our views of the world and perspectives may easily be overturned, and that we should ask ourselves this question.

Interviewed on May 19, 2014