リサーチユニット総覧(Research Unit Magazine)

合理的配慮にもとづく支援にむけて多様な能力を育める大学を目指して
高等教育における障害学生支援に関する研究リサーチユニットAiming to become a university that nurtures multiple skills required to provide support based on reasonable accommodation

キーワード:合理的配慮(reasonable accommodation)、インクルージョン、障害学生支援、ユニバーサル・キャンパス

 

takeda  2007 年に日本が署名した国連の障害者権利条約*1に代表されるように、国際的には、障害者が持つ困難に対する合理的配慮(reasonable accommodation)の提供は社会の様々な分野で遵守すべき義務として認識され、また、教育のすべてのステージで障害者と健常者を分け隔てないインクルージョン教育が原則となり始めています。大学も例外ではありません。障害児者に関する教育、医学・生理学、福祉などが融合した我が国唯一の障害科学を学問体系として発展させてきた筑波大学の英知が集結した本リサーチユニットから高等教育機関での障害学生支援モデルが今まさに発信されようとしています。

 

障害学生の社会的障壁に対する合理的配慮(reasonable accommodation)

 障害と一言でいっても、その困難性には様々なものがあります。近年は、目に見える障害だけではなく、障害のある人にとって、日常生活や社会生活を送る上で障壁となるような、社会における事物、制度、慣行、観念その他一切のものを、「社会(環境)側の問題」という捉え方が主流になっており、国内法もその考え方に沿って整備されています。つまり、大学での合理的配慮とは、善意でではなく、あくまでも障害学生個人のニーズに対応して、大学が義務として行わなければならない変更や調整のことを意味します。聴覚や視覚に障害がある学生が情報保障なく講義に出ると、講義内容を十分に理解することは不可能です。一方で、大学の本質を考えると学問や研究の質を維持することが同時に求められます。やる気と能力のある学生が障害を理由に修学を断念することのない様な支援環境を作っていくことが、大学で行う障害学生支援のゴールの一つだと私たちは考え実践しています(図1)。

takeda_zu1

ユニバーサル・キャンパスの実現に向けて

 筑波大学障害学生支援室の専門委員をコアメンバーに構成しているこのリサーチユニットでは、障害学生支援における合理的配慮について学際的な研究を行っています。障害種(視覚障害・聴覚障害・運動障害・内部障害・発達障害)毎のアセスメント項目*2、バリアフリー講義システム(図1)の効果的な活用方法、支援者養成のカリキュラム、支援ボランティアの養成、支援方法・技術の高度化、障害学生および支援学生の健康管理などについて、基礎的な研究を行っています。また学外チームと共同でバイオマーカーを用いた、障害者のストレスの生理学的評価に関する研究も進めています。これらの研究活動を通じユニバーサル・キャンパスの構築に必要な諸条件を明らかにするとともに、高等教育機関での障害学生支援モデルの構築に挑戦中です。

*1:あらゆる障害(身体障害、知的障害及び精神障害等)のある人の尊厳と権利を
保障するための人権条約。第61 回国連総会(2006 年)において採択された。

*2:障害を持つ個人の状態像を理解し、必要な支援や将来の行動予測、支援の成果
を調べること。                            

takeda_zu2

 

社会への貢献・実績

● バリアフリーマップの制作(図2)
● 聴覚障害学生支援コーディネートシステム(CAS)の開発(図3) takeda_zu3

 (取材:平成25年8月23日)

 

 


Aiming to become a university that nurtures multiple skills required to provide support based on reasonable accommodation

 

Unit representative: Professor Kazunori Takeda, Faculty of Human Sciences

Unit members:14 (6 faculty members, no postdoctoral fellows, none from other organizations)

Key words: reasonable accommodation, inclusion, support for disabled students, universal campus

 

As proposed in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,*1 “reasonable accommodation” which takes into consideration the difficulties experienced by the disabled has been takedaincreasingly recognized as an obligation to be complied with in a variety of fields of international society. “Inclusive education”, which proposes that people with and without disabilities should not be separated in all educational stages, is also being adopted as a principle. Universities are no exceptions. The University of Tsukuba is the only university in Japan that has developed “science for the disabled” integrating education, medicine, physiology, and welfare related to disabled adults and children, as an academic discipline. Our research unit, which has brought together the intellects of the university, has developed a new model for supporting disabled students learning in higher education institutions.

 

Reasonable accommodation to address social obstacles experienced by disabled students

 

There is a wide variety of disability-related difficulties. The idea that everything in society, including systems, customs, and concepts, that may interfere with the daily and social lives of disabled people, in addition to factors related to visible disabilities, should be recognized as a social (environmental) problem has become mainstream in recent years. Japanese domestic laws in accordance with this concept are also being developed. “Reasonable accommodation” in universities refers to changes and modifications to be implemented by the schools, as their obligations and not as a well-intentioned effort, to respond to the needs of individual disabled students. When hearing- or visually-impaired students attend classes for which their right to information is not guaranteed, they cannot adequately understand lectures. Meanwhile, it is also necessary to maintain the quality of academic disciplines and research, which form the essence of universities. As a goal of support for disabled university students, we are involved in the development of learning environments to support motivated and competent students, so that they will not have to abandon learning because of their disabilities (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Examples of systems for barrier-free lectures installed in the University of Tsukuba

Figure 1: Examples of systems for barrier-free lectures installed in the University of Tsukuba

 

 

To create a universal campus

  The research unit, principally consisting of full-time members of the University of Tsukuba Disabled Students Support Division, conducts interdisciplinary research on reasonable accommodation to support disabled students. Basic research subjects include: assessment items*2, methods for the effective use of barrier-free lecture systems (Figure 1), curriculums to train supporters, training of support volunteers, sophistication of supporting methods/technologies, and the health management of students with disabilities and in need of support. We also conduct joint research on the physiological assessment of stress in the disabled in collaboration with external teams, using biomarkers. We are challenged to determine the requirements for establishing universal campuses through these research activities, as well as developing models to support disabled students learning in higher education institutions.

Figure 2 : Process of the creation of a barrier-free map

Figure 2 : Process of the creation of a barrier-free map

*1: A treaty related to human rights established to protect the dignity and rights of all disabled people (with physical, intellectual, and mental disabilities). It was adopted at the 61st U.N. General Assembly (2006).
*2: It aims to understand the status of individuals with disabilities to discuss required support, predict their future behaviors, and examine the effects of support.

 

Social contributions and achievements

● Creation of barrier-free maps (Figure 2)

 

● Development of the coordinate assist system (CAS) to support hearing-impaired students (Figure 3)

Figure 3 : Coordinate assist system (CAS) to support hearing-impaired students

Figure 3 : Coordinate assist system (CAS) to support hearing-impaired students

 
 (Interviewed on August 23, 2013)