リサーチユニット総覧(Research Unit Magazine)

運動能力を引き出す学習過程を解明
運動能力研究リサーチユニットExamining the Learning Process to Nurture Motor Abilities

代表者:西嶋 尚彦    中核研究者:木塚 朝博  榎本 靖士  
キーワード:運動能力、運動学習、トレーニングの科学、体育の測定と評価、ヘルスプロモーション

 

nishijimaみなさんは運動を覚える過 程を知っていますか?新しく習得する動作は日々の経験が蓄積されプログラム化されます。リサーチユニット「運動能力研究」は、潜在的な運動能力を解明する ために、運動学習の過程での測定方法と評価方法を分析し、運動習得の発達段階について解明できるよう研究を進めています。運動が不得意な人も、簡単な手順 で、楽しんで、すぐに新しい運動が習得できることを目指しています。

 

複雑な運動のメカニズムを解明

 運動技術は伝え学ぶことができます。どういう順番で学習すると、複雑な運動ができるよう
になるのでしょうか? ある運動をやらせると、すぐにできる子が運動能力が高いと評価され、できない子は怖くて脳がブレーキをかけているだけなのに、運動能力が低いと評価されて しまいます。そこで本ユニットは子どもの能力を引き出す「学習ノート」(図1)やPCやタブレットを使う「運動学習・動作比較アプリ」(図2)を開発しま す。お手本の運動局面の分解写真と自分の映像を照らし合わせ、最初は運動ができなかった子の潜在的な運動能力を引き出すことを目標としています。

nishijima_zu1

nishijima_zu2

 

潜在的な運動能力の発達を測る

 走・跳躍・投球などの運動能力は、ものさしや時間や重さで測れます(図3)。技術的・戦術的に巧みなプレーをするための運動能力は簡単に測れません。し かし、運動能力を向上させるためには、測れない能力の向上が重要です。測ることが難しい運動能力を測定するため、簡単なテストを開発して、スポーツに必要 な運動能力を見つけ出します。なでしこジャパンのような世界チャンピオン水準のアスリートを育成するための運動技術の学習過程を開発します。

nishijima_zu3

 

社会への貢献・実績

●子どもの体力・運動能力の向上のための統計分析
●運動学習のための体育の「学習ノート」の作成
●タブレットPCでの「運動学習・動作比較アプリ」による運動学習のICT支援
●世界水準のアスリート(なでしこジャパン)育成のための運動技術の学習

 (取材:平成25年6月20日)

 

 


Examining the Learning Process to Nurture Motor Abilities

 

Unit representative:  Professor Takahiko Nishijima, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences

Unit members: 3 (3 faculty members, 0 postdoctoral fellows, none from other organizations)

Key words: motor abilities, motor learning, training science, measurement and evaluation for physical education, health promotion

 

 

  Do you know what the motor learning process is for? When we learn new movements, such movements are programmed based on our daily experiences. This research unit, named: Motor Ability Research, nishijimaexamines developmental stages to learn movements by analyzing methods to measure and evaluate the motor learning process, with a view to clarifying potential motor abilities. Our goal is to help all people, including those who are not good at sports, effectively and enjoyably learn new movements.

 

Clarifying Complex Motor Mechanisms

 Motor skills can be taught and learned. What is the most effective method to execute complex movements? In general, those who are promptly able to execute new movements are considered to have a high-level motor ability, and those who are not are considered to have a low-level motor ability; however, in the latter case, such difficulty is simply associated with cerebral control due to fear. To address this, in this unit, the(Figure 1) to nurture children’s abilities and (Figure 2) for PCs and tablets have been developed. The purpose of these instruments is to nurture potential motor abilities in children who initially show difficulty in executing new movements by comparing the images of each segment of optimal movements and their actual performance.

 

 

Figure 1: Learning Notebook

Figure 1: Learning Notebook

Figure 2: Motor Comparison Application "Have You Mastered This Technique?"

Figure 2: Motor Comparison Application “Have You Mastered This Technique?”

Developing Potential Motor Abilities

  Some motor abilities, such as running, jumping, and throwing a ball, can be measured based on the speed or distance (Figure 3). In contrast, the ability to execute technically and tactically appropriate movements cannot be measured so easily. In order to promote motor abilities, it is important to develop unmeasurable skills. In line with this, we have also been engaged in the development of simplified tests to measure such unmeasurable motor skills, focusing on those needed in sports. We aim to develop the process of learning motor skills and nurture world champion-level athletes, such as the Japan Women’s Soccer National Team members.

 

Figure 3: Improvement of 30-m Sprint performance of Men's University Soccer Players

Figure 3: Improvement of 30-m Sprint performance of Men’s University Soccer Players

Social contributions and achievements
For children, adults, and the elderly, as well as athletes
●Performing statistical data analyses to improve children’s physical and motor abilities
●Developing the Learning Notebook for motor learning through physical education
●ICT support for motor learning using the Motor Learning and Comparison Application for tablet PCs
●Nurturing world-class athletes (such as the Japan Women’s Soccer National Team members) through support for motor skill learning

 
 (Interviewed on May 23, 2013)